DCI-P3 is the most optimal color standard for digital cinema. Beginning later this year, the technology can be adapted to other small to medium-sized OLED displays, including those used in notebooks.
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Samsung Display Co. Employing approximately 70, people at nine production facilities and 16 sales offices worldwide, Samsung Display specializes in high-quality displays for consumer, mobile, IT and industrial usage, including those featuring OLED organic light emitting diode and LCD technologies.
As a total solution provider, Samsung Display strives to advance the future with next-generation technologies featuring ultra-thin, energy-efficient, flexible, and transparent displays. The built-in camera, standard in smartphones today, allows users to record a photo diary of daily food and drink. These photos may be transferred to a server, which identifies and quantifies the food portion [ 27 ]. A weight loss trial utilised a mobile app to monitor dietary intake, body weight and objectively-measured physical activity obtained from a Bluetooth-enabled accelerometer of its participants [ 28 ].
Kamel Boulos and Yang surveyed dozens of mobile, location-based outdoor exergaming apps that harness the power of sharing through online social networks and gamification principles on GPS-enabled smartphones. Apps are also developed for smoking cessation and alcohol addiction.
At least 47 iPhone apps for smoking cessation are available [ 30 ]. In patients with chronic disease characterised by life-threatening flares, apps may allow them to track and even report symptoms. Users can also receive disease education, medication information, task notifications, and synchronise records with an online database to better control their symptoms [ 33 ]. Psychiatric patients benefit from ambulatory monitoring through an app that randomly prompts the patient to self-report psychotic symptoms multiple times throughout the day [ 34 ]. Another app for sickle cell disease patients allows them to access an online diary to record pain and other symptoms [ 35 ].
Monitoring symptoms in patients with COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through a mobile app alerts patients and providers to suspected disease exacerbations, thereby facilitating prompt intervention [ 36 ]. Patients may even use apps to attempt self-diagnosis without a medical visit. Such apps are not without their pitfalls and this will be discussed in detail later in this paper. Apps may empower non-medical professionals to provide basic triage at the scene of trauma such as on the sidelines of a sporting event.
Five similar concussion apps exist for purchase as well [ 40 ]. Mobile app technology has far-reaching potential in the public health domain as well. Apps may be used to contribute to the care and prevention of sexually transmitted disease STD. A study of available apps demonstrated 55 unique mobile apps for HIV human immunodeficiency virus and STD education, prevention, testing and resources [ 41 ]. Text messaging, or Short Message Service SMS , dates back to the early days of mobile phones, and most applications worked equally well on the simplest mobile phones, the more advanced feature phones, as well as full-fledged smartphones.
Due to the pervasive nature of the mobile phone, text-messaging applications have the unique opportunity to alert patients directly regardless of location or availability to take a voice call. Evaluation of text messaging shows promising results for assisting with clinical monitoring and counselling, keeping medical appointments, smoking cessation, weight loss, chronic disease management e.
Adherence to therapy and disease control may be improved in psoriasis patients who receive daily educational and motivational text messages [ 47 ]. Text message reminders to patients may also improve antibiotic compliance [ 48 ] or even prevent recurrent cardiovascular events [ 49 ]. On the one hand, text messaging provides nearly universal user access, particularly in low-resource settings, with decreasing costs, simple interventions to develop and use, customisable content and schedule, and a push-mode delivery that prompts users to read and possibly respond.
On the other hand, text messaging offers limited interaction, with often only passive engagement, and does not leverage the latest smartphone computing power. Mobile apps may also provide access to electronic health records and patient information. Kharrazi et al. Several applications have been described that harness mobile devices and apps to increase efficiency and access to care, particularly in emergency situations [ 55 ]. When time is of the essence, apps can increase speed and accessibility to critical specialist care in real time, e.
Acute stroke care is made portable and accessible to non-urban centres via real-time video on smartphones [ 56 ]. Acute trauma patients also benefit from timely and efficient management. An iPhone-based teleradiology program was used for the diagnosis of acute cervical trauma, examining CT scans to evaluate for the presence of fractures or displacements [ 61 ].
Resource-limited settings and remote locations e. In one study, the iPhone was used to send fundoscopic images to board certified ophthalmologists for review to detect diabetic retinopathy [ 62 ]. Mobile phone multimedia messaging allowed general practitioners to send teledermatology referrals in the form of photos and relevant clinical information to specialist dermatologists for consultation [ 63 ].
In some instances, mobile apps may allow telemedicine to replace time-consuming office visits altogether. This modality may benefit specialties that require frequent follow-up care or monitoring, such as rehabilitation or post-operative care of patients. A physical therapy app provided virtual-reality-based balance exercises through a mobile device.
Remote physiotherapists with access to the results could adjust the level of exercises accordingly [ 64 ]. Surgeons utilised remote real-time monitoring of free flaps via smartphone photography to replace in-person examination [ 65 ]. For example, an adaptor with electrocardiogram ECG electrodes may transmit electrical data to detect abnormal heart rhythms in a non-hospital setting [ 66 ].
Patients with diabetes may synchronize a glucometer attachment to their mobile device to track blood glucose and share the data through an internet connection [ 67 , 68 ]. The next generation of smartphone app technology may even enable users to perform routine blood testing [ 69 ]. Ever since the first cellular phone call was placed on 3 April , the mobile age has grown and continues to do so at an exponential rate, particularly during the 21 st century [ 71 ]. The vast array of smartphones, mobile tablets and mobile medical and health-related apps on offer today see the app examples presented earlier in this article provides consumers with an unprecedented opportunity to achieve their health and healthcare goals, and overcome many obstacles along the way.
However, with such a booming industry also come concerns, risk and potential dangers. It is perhaps surprising that relatively very little research has been undertaken so far as of to investigate the validity and efficacy of these devices and apps in the contexts of health and healthcare. Here, we will briefly present several evaluation and validation studies exploring the diversity of health and healthcare-related apps.
One of the most well studied areas is that of diabetes management. A review conducted by Demidowich et al.
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The mean composite usability score which evaluated six standard features per app was Another fascinating area of investigation is that of tablet iPad [Apple, Inc. Such mobile apps pose particular advantages in emergency settings. Several studies have been conducted to compare the efficacy of the iPad to diagnose pulmonary embolism and intracranial haemorrhage versus conventional Picture Archiving and Communications System PACS or liquid-crystal display LCD monitor systems.
The studies have found the iPad to be equivalent to conventional methods, but express the need for conducting further research to examine minor discrepancies [ 76 - 78 ]. In addition, the iPad is being explored as an aid in laparoscopic training for residents and for percutaneous kidney access [ 79 , 80 ].
Highlights of Smart-Ex 02
The need for affordable, reliable and prompt diagnostic and therapeutic measures is especially evident in the global health infectious disease arena. A study performed in rural Bangladesh demonstrated that basic mobile phone technology is both efficient and effective in improving case detection and management of malaria [ 82 ].
Mobile phone messaging has been proposed and investigated as a method to improve medication adherence and communication in HIV management, but a systematic review published in by van Veltoven et al. Further studies are needed to adequately assess this topic.
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An innovative and novel use of smartphone technology is in the realm of pain management. Pain is an incredibly diverse and prevalent state that it is often hard for patients to describe, which makes it even harder for caregivers to diagnose and treat. Smartphone technology has the potential to revolutionise real-time pain reporting. In a usability testing study published in , a smartphone-based e-diary was successfully used by children and adolescents with sickle cell disease to report pain symptoms [ 34 ]. A randomised clinical trial has shown women with chronic widespread pain experience fewer catastrophising events rumination, expecting the worst, and feeling helpless when using smartphone-based diaries with immediate therapist feedback [ 85 ].
Similar studies have shown successful usability of smartphone pain assessment in wheelchair users and adolescents with cancer [ 86 , 87 ]. The field of dermatology is also taking advantage of the technological smartphone revolution. One randomised community trial provided text message reminders to use sunscreen daily as the intervention for sun protection, to prevent sunburns in the near term and skin cancer in the long term , and monitored dispensed sunscreen.
Text messages increased sunscreen use, with greater daily adherence [ 46 ]. Text messaging has also been investigated as a tool for improving motivation and treatment adherence in patients with psoriasis. Multimedia text and photos messaging Multimedia Messaging Service[MMS] has proven to be a promising tool in teledermatology, where it has been used to send digital photographs of skin conditions to specialist dermatologists for diagnosis.
One study compared MMS photographs sent to dermatologists at a university hospital versus separate face-to-face visits in 40 patients. This study employed two dermatologists for the multimedia message diagnosis and two separate dermatologists for the face-to-face visits. Another potential use of smartphones in dermatology involves apps targeted for patients. In particular, apps have been designed to aid patients with suspicious skin lesions to determine if their lesion is benign or malignant.
A study published in in JAMA Dermatology analysed four of these apps and discovered that the ability of apps to assess melanoma risk is highly variable. A major conclusion of this study was that extreme caution should be exercised when consumers use apps to assess their medical risks, since many apps are subjected to very little or absolutely no regulatory oversight [ 39 ].
For example, O'Neill and Brady [ 12 ] recently questioned the reliability of unregulated medical apps specifically applied towards colorectal diseases. With such a little medical professional involvement in the design of the majority of these apps, increased regulation of some kind is definitely required if we were to improve accountability for app content [ 12 ]. Similarly, in another study by Visvanathan et al.
The lack of medical professional involvement in the design of the majority of these apps again undermines users' ability to be informed regarding app content quality. Visvanathan et al. Ferrero and colleagues [ 38 ] investigated the potential danger of clinical dermatology apps targeting patients, calling for FDA regulation of such apps. Likewise, Robson et al. Huckvale et al. Demidowich et al. O'Neill and Brady [ 98 ] pointed to apps where inaccuracy or inconsistency could potentially cost lives, citing their experience with opioid conversion calculators. They examined 23 different opioid conversion medical apps and found alarming inconsistencies in their outputs.
Such medical apps could present a real risk to patients if the apps do not work as intended. The FDA has already cleared a handful of mobile medical apps [ ] that are either used as an accessory to an FDA-regulated medical device or transform a mobile platform into a regulated medical device e.
Smart Device & Mobile Emerging Technologies
The combined system and app allows clinicians to image the eye fundus exams and save the images for later review or sharing with colleagues [ ]. In a must-read IEEE Spectrum article published in September , Strickland presented a list of top-five requests to the FDA that came out of a survey of key industry figures on what they would like to see in FDA rules for medical apps [ ].
The requests deal essentially with the need to crisply define the boundaries between apps that have to be regulated by the FDA and apps that do not have to go through the certification process. But many apps with dosage calculator functions currently marketed in the UK still do not carry the CE mark to show that they have been registered as class I medical devices with the MHRA in England or one of the corresponding regulatory bodies in other EU countries [ ].
The likelihood of an app being treated as a medical device by the MHRA depends on what the app does and the corresponding level of patient risk associated with it. High risk apps, e. According to MHRA, if an app is purely a record archiving and retrieval system electronic health records , it is unlikely to be considered a medical device; however, if it includes a module that interprets data or performs some calculation, then it is likely that this particular component may be considered a medical device.
Decision-support apps are also generally not considered a medical device by MHRA if they just provide existing i. However, if the apps perform a calculation or interpret or interpolate data and the clinician does not review the raw data, then such apps may be considered medical devices for MHRA purposes. Nevertheless, an app performing simple and straightforward calculations such as BMI body mass index should not be treated as a medical device, but a dosage calculator that recommends a dose based on individual patient details should be [ , ].
As part of the technical documentation, app developers will also need to have undertaken a controlled test and risk assessment to demonstrate that their app supports and improves upon any existing process used to present the same information or function. Developers can submit their apps for review and possible listing in the Library. A proper app store cf. These are not trivial tasks, and could prove very demanding and well beyond the remits of the NHS, when one considers the thousands of medical and health apps that a specialised health apps store would have to deal with.
These aspects or factors are also equally important in the case of health-related and medical apps that are excluded from conventional software as a medical device regulations.
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Medical and health app reviewers, such as the curators of the above mentioned NHS Health Apps Library, should cover and perhaps rate in some way these aspects in any app review or assessment they undertake where applicable , to allow end users to make informed comparisons and decisions about which apps to download and use. For apps serving medical images, evaluators additionally need to establish that all the relevant ethical issues, such as obtaining informed consent from patients to publish their images in a smartphone app, were duly considered in the design of these apps [ ]. But high-quality, evidence-based content alone is of limited value, if presented in a way that does not adequately match and address the usability, accessibility, readability reading with understanding and health literacy needs of target audiences.
Almost half of all Europeans show limited health literacy, according to the European Health Literacy Survey results published in [ ], and this should be taken into consideration when designing and evaluating apps intended for consumption by the general public. Presenting correct, unbiased information but in a way that is hard to understand by the intended audience not only renders this information useless, but also makes misunderstanding a likely possibility, which can have serious negative health consequences [ ].
Frohner et al. Biometric fingerprint identification is now available on some smartphones and can help verifying and ensuring the identity of the person or patient using the device or a particular app running on it. Some apps allow patients to manually log and edit their health and lifestyle data before submitting these details electronically to their treating clinicians. Happtique [ ] is a US mobile health mHealth solutions company aimed at integrating mHealth into patient care and daily life. App Operability OP Standards OP1 to OP9 cover issues such as ensuring the app installs, launches, and runs consistently on target device s and operating system s.
App Security S Standards S1 to S7 deal with issues such as verifying that the app, including without limitation, any advertisement displayed or supported through it, is free of malware. The testing of the Technical Standards was assigned to Intertek, a multinational inspection, product testing and certification company headquartered in London, United Kingdom [ ]. HACP remains a voluntary programme. Apps requiring any public or private certification, registration, clearance or similar approval e. Apps may have deficiencies and limits.
App development, support, maintenance and regular updating may entail significant costs. And that was two years ago when they also managed to make the thinnest smartphone in the world. And now they have another top product that leaves others in the dust, including the biggest names in the business. It seemed that the technology can't any further and that iPhone 6's 6. That has its price: there is simply no room for a headphone jack but there is an USB-to A big plus for Oppo.
There is another feature that left us stunned: every smartphone is finished by hand to give a perfect sheen and feel.
Yes, by hand.